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  1. Rich·ard
    IPA[ˈriCHərd]
    • 1. the name of three kings of England.

    • 2. Richard I (1157–99), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; reigned 1189–99; known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart. He led the Third Crusade, defeating Saladin at Arsuf (1191), but failed to capture Jerusalem. Returning home, he was held hostage by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI until being released in 1194 on payment of a huge ransom.

    • 3. Richard II (1367–1400), son of the Black Prince; reigned 1377–99. During his minority the government was dominated by his uncle John of Gaunt. Following his minority, he executed or banished most of his former opponents. His confiscation of his uncle John of Gaunt's estate on the latter's death provoked Henry Bolingbroke's return from exile to overthrow him.

    • 4. Richard III (1452–85), brother of Edward IV; reigned 1483–85. He served as Protector to his nephew Edward V, who, after two months, was declared illegitimate and subsequently disappeared. Richard's brief rule ended at Bosworth Field, where he was defeated by Henry Tudor and killed.

    • the name of three kings of England.

      Richard I (1157–99), son of Henry II, reigned 1189–99; known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart. He led the Third Crusade, defeating Saladin at Arsuf (1191) but failing to capture Jerusalem. Returning home, he was held hostage by the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI until being released in 1194 on payment of a huge ransom.

    • (born 1952), West Indian cricketer; full name Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards. He captained the West Indian team from 1985 until 1991, and scored over 6,000 runs during his test career.
    • (1893–1979), English literary critic and poet; full name Ivor Armstrong Richards. He emphasized the importance of close textual study and praised irony, ambiguity, and allusiveness.
    • (1904–86), English jockey. He was champion jockey twenty-six times between 1925 and 1953.
    • (1893–1979), English literary critic and poet; full name Ivor Armstrong Richards. He emphasized the importance of close textual study, and praised irony, ambiguity, and allusiveness. Notable works: Practical Criticism (1929).
    • (1813–83), German composer; full name Wilhelm Richard Wagner. He developed an operatic genre that he called music drama, synthesizing music, drama, verse, legend, and spectacle. Notable works: The Flying Dutchman (1841), Der Ring des Nibelungen (1847–74), Tristan and Isolde (1859), and the Siegfried Idyll (1870).
    • (1925–84), Welsh actor; born Richard Jenkins. He played a number of Shakespearean roles on stage before appearing in movies such as The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1966) and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966). He often costarred with Elizabeth Taylor, whom he married twice.
    • (1802–78), US architect; born in England. He is best known for his buildings, such as Trinity Church 1839–46 in New York City, that are designed in Gothic Revival style.
    • (1864–1949), German composer. With librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal he produced operas such as Der Rosenkavalier (1911). He is often regarded as the last of the 19th-century romantic composers.
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